Copyright (c) SEARCH, 1998



A discrepansy between actual and desirable outputs is usually measured while social-economic processes (large scale systems) are controlled (according to feedback prinsiple). This discrepansy is than fed to system input to return the system into required balance condition. The following stages are typicall for it: criterion (standard) selection; system operation quality (measuring methods selection); actual and standard operation quality comparision to define a discrepansy. The control signals are defined on the basis of discrepansy size for returning a system to standard behavior. Managerial staff and leaders solve to interrelated problems as usual. These are time delay and sensitivity.As a result of time delay an error occurs inevitably in the system.The error is added to imput influence.This time delay may be reduced by increasing the sensitivity, i.e controlled (correcting) influences take place, when there are small standard deviations.However, the sensitivity increase may induce the leaders to take urgent and unreasonnable decisions during occasionnal fluctuations occured in the systems. In practice, the fluctuations near the standard and the standard fluctuations as well take place while system developing. And therefore, in order not to solve unessential problems all the time the leaders usually increase the time delay reducing the sensitivity.
If a system condition is evaluated with an error then the system may become unstable (the error will increase in time).
The time delay is minimized by introducing correcting actions before measuring the actual system condition. One of the possible ways to solve the problem is the input influence control.
If the input/output signal correlations (functional connections) are known, i.e the model of the system, than one may predict precisely enough the output reaction on controlled influence. The considering control principle is called control according the indignation. The principle is rather simple, but it is difficult to realize it without modern means of informatics, telecommunication and paperiess managerial technology (digital pacet, radio computer comunication).
The experience of restoring works control on elimination of catastrophic erthquake consequences in Armenia has demonstrated it clearly enough. The natural calamity affected almost the whole northern part of Armenia, 21 towns and districts (about 40% of republic territory) with a population of more than 960 thousand people. Leninakan, the second town of republic turned into a heap of ruins, Spitak was fully wiped out. Significant distructions occured in Kirovakan and Stepanavan and in Spitak, Stepanavan, Ahurian, Gougassian, Aragadz regions as well.
Thousands of people, including children, perished. 514 thousand became homeless, 365 villages suffered losses, 58 of then were fully distroyed. The great damage was caused to national economy. The Republic lost about 17% of its dwelling fund (about 8 millions sq. m.). About half of schools and pre- school institutions, 110 hospitals and ambulances, 119 clubs and cultural objects are either distroyed or in emergency conditions. 157 enterprises stopped there operation 17 from 20 major enterprises in Leninakan were fully destroyed.
The great losses are in agriculture. The agricultural constructions were fully or partially distroyed about 80 thousand head of cattle was lost. Irrigation and water supply systems as well as other agroindustrial objects were destroyed on the area of more than 90000 hectares. The Kirovakan Heat and Power Plant, the northern and western electric systems, a lot of transformating and distrbuting substances were put out of operation. Partil damage was caused to the Hrazdan Hydro-electric power station. All the communication lines were damaged in the earthquake region. It took almost two months to put them in action. The water supply systems of Leninakan and Kirovakan got essential destruction and the one in Spitak was completely distroyed. In fact, in above mentioned towns and in 18 country-sides the whole industrial and social structures were paralyzed.
According to preliminary calculations, Armenia has lost about 13,5 milliard roubles of its national wealth. The Armenian tragedy and the events followed have confirmed the real necessity of aerialcosmic photography methods, satelite telecommunication system and computer radio-packet communication to provide an information acquisition, business meetings, consultations, complex situation analysis and coordination of all kinds of works.
The absence of such special means for effective communication caused significiant difficulties in restoring works control. No sq.m. of dwelling area was put into commission in Leninakan and in Stepanavan, Shamshadin and Toumanian regions during the first half of 1989. The local authorities and leaders didn't manage to solve the problem of people employment. That's why the level of unemployed population in the earthquake zone has reached 42 thousand people. The half-year plan of capital construction investments volume is realized on 32-35% of year limit only. Because of the poor organized work of some ministeries only 62 of 250 needed compound industrial modules were obtained. That makes the restoring efforts in the region to slow down. And it should be noted that all restoring works were coordinated by Special Commission of the CPSU political Bureau, with the leaders of the State at the head.
Thus, it is obvious that computer radio-packet communication network design is an extremely actual problem not only for republic and state but for the world as well. Proposed telecommunication radio packet network is based on early developed systems, using space, satellite, telephone and radio means, such as Notepad-USA, SFMT, JARN, and Adonis (the USSR).
Telecommunication Network (TN) is the basis for the integrated computer control system for restoring process and socialeconomic rehabilitation of population in Armenia. TN is intended to provide information effective input, processing, analysis, storage and transfer for solving coordination, checking and relization problems.


The central computer TN mode is installed in Yerevan to accumulate all the information for complex processing and coordination. The local distributed computer networks will be placed in Leninakan, Kirovakan, Spitak and Stepanavan.

Pic. 1

The following activities will be realized via local terminals and personnal computers:

Pic. 2

On March 1, 1990 in computer banks of the Telecommunication Center "Search" were accumulated data for more than 2OO thousand sufferers, 18 thousand hospitalazed people, dozen of victims, 25 thousand being searched after the quake; and 25 thousand Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan after the pogroms and murders in Baku in January 1990.
Due to rationally organized information works about 20 thousand persons ( children and adults, friends and relatives) have found each other.
On the basis of Center data there have bean published "Nadezda" reports with the lists and photos of searched persons.
So it was for the first time in the USSR that Center "Search" carried out inquiry and search functions oriented on people`s needs not only inside the republic, but in foreign and inner Armenian diasporas as well.
The individual TN consists of portable computer to node computer (either directly or via telephone modems) or to another personal computer via radio modem (packet communication controller), or reciever-transmitter and of antennae. Any type of computer may be used. The only requirement is the availability of sequential data exchange channel, operating according RS-232 standard.
A command, a textual file, computer software, synthesized speech and a graphic image as well may serve as a transmitted information. The exchange rate increases from 50 to 9600 b/s.
The use of low- and mid- orbital satelites essentially simplifies and reduced the cost of the earth stations equipment.
The advantages of proposed TN structure, as compared with traditional ones, are the following:

Chapter 8 of the monograph "Aerospace Informatics and Organization of Large-Scale Construction", Gusakov A., Vahanyan G., and others, Yerevan, "Hayastan", 1991.