The aim of this article represented to the readers is the discription of the hard national affairs in the history of the Armenian people. The history of Armenian people is the history of terrible "experiment" on the nation survival.
Getting acguainted with this article readers may come to a conclusion that Armenian genocide can not be looked on only in the mirror of the Sultan of Osman Turkey policy. Indeed, this genocide covers wider period of time. And this all is being done before the so-called civilized West, before the eyes of the New and Old world in the condition of new thinking and Perestroyka, and the whole mankind is a witness of it.
Till when will the reasonable world submit to such disaster? Till when will the strongers ridicule the weakers, irritate them against each other, for their pitiful profits?
The history of Armenia is the obvious example of it. Neither capitalism nor socialism has the right of being called humane. The history of Armenia is alive monument of the crime and mistakes of the capitalism and distorted socialism.
The struggle between Persia and Turkey has ended in 1639 and Armenia has been finally divided into Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia. A very hard period has begun for Armenian people. According to the agreement between Russia and Persia, concluded on February 10, 1828, the part of Eastern Armenia has been joined to Russia. According to the point 15 of this agreement the Armenian popuiation of Atrpatakan should have decided itself to stay in Persia, or to emigrate to the Eastern Armenia.
The growth of population has been observed during 1828-1989 in Armenia. It's reasonable to divide this period on 3 parts:
Till 1827 the population on the territory of Eastern Armenia, joined to Russia, was 44,6 thousand people, 66,3 % of which were Armenians. By the moment of joining, the population of Armenia in present day boundaries was 97,4 /Table 1 & Graphic 1/ thousand people. Further, the rapid growth of population is observed and already in 1873 it has reached 496,1 thousand people, i.e. it has increased 5,1 times. And at the eve of the World War I the population number has reached 1 mln people. The number of Armenians has in creased 10,2 times. During the same period the world population has increased 1,5 times and the population of Russia - 2,3 times. The rapid growth of the population, on the territory of present day Armenia, is explained by several social-economic and political circumstances. First of all the population has raised not for the natural increase but rather for the continuous official immigration. But at the same time the opposite flow is also observed. As far as the rapid development of some industrial centers is Transcaucasus, especially in Baku and Tbilisy, attracts a lot of Armenians there.
About 1,5 million Armenians were abolished in West Armenia, during the genocide of 1915 and due to hunger and deseases. About 800 thousand Armenians find their freedom in Caucasus and in West Arabia.1918-1920 years become fateful for East Armenia.During the World War I (1914-1918) many people died in Armenia. In 1918-1920 the number of losses increased many times.In the region of Armenia the number of immigrants reached 301,5 thousand. We see that at the end of 1918 population make up nearly 1306,7 thousand, including immigrants. Comparing with 1920 when the population has been 774,2 thousand, it will be seen that this number has diminished in 40,5% /Table 1 & Graphic 1/.
During those years 87 thousand people emigrate from the present territory of Armenia to Russia. 40 thousand emigrate in 1918 and 47 thousand in 1920.
In 1918-1920 432,5 thousand people or 35,8% of population are abolished. In 1920 year the popylation of East Armenia diminished 1/4 time as compare with 1914, making up 720 thousand people.
In November 29, 1920 after the victory of the Soviet power, the immigration increased widely, in case of which the population in Armenia grew rapidly, exept the years of Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) and the years of great earthquake (1988-1989) when many people died. In 1941-1945 the population diminished to 174 thousand people and in 1988-1989 to 176,5 thousand people. In 1940 the population of Armenia made up 1320,3 thousand people, 666 thousand male from them /Table 1 & Graphic 1/. The population of Armenia made up 0,68% of the Soviet Union and 0,72% among males.
During the Great Patriotic War 20 million people were killed in the Soviet Union. 8668,4 thousand were soldiers, 200 thousand from which were Armenian soldiers. During 5 years War Armenian people gave loss fewer than in great eartquake.
Observing the population's change in number in Yerevan we can notice increase of population. Beginning from 1976 it makes up 20 thousand people. This increase is natural. More than 1/3 (37%) of people live in Yerevan.
It should be mentioned, that from the date of 1987 45,9% of population live in 3 biggist cities: in Yerevan, in Kirovakan and in Leninakan. Even after the earthquake the 42,9% of Armenian population live in these 3 cities.
In 1904-1914 in Armenia, in it's present day territory annual anerage birth-rate makes up 34 person, per each 1000 person and dead-rate - 21 person. Children's death is on the highest level. In it's index of birth-rate and natural increase, per each 1000 person, Armenia has yeilded only Asia and Azerbaijan and has high ievel - in 1987- 18,3 person, in 1988 11,3 person /Table 2 & Graphic 2/.
Begining from the middle of the 60-s we notice the fall of the birth-date index nearly in every republics of the USSR (besides Tajikistan). Beginning from the 60-th century the birth-date index becomes stable in Armenia and naturally dead-rate index also becomes stable. This proportion would stay if there will not be the great earthquake in 1988.
The next index influential on natural increase is death stable shortening. During last years the dead index firmed and in Armenia it continues to fall. In Armenia dead index is falling, but among the old people it is growing. Nowdays children's death also falls in Armenia.
The percentage correlation between men and women also influenced the natural increase. From the date of 1989 in Armenia men's number makes up 1618,0 thousand or 49,3%, and women's 1665,0 thousand or 50,7% of population /Table 3 & Graphic 3/. One of the index influencing the natural increase are women, who are able to givebirth. From the date of census in 1959 the number of women, who are able to give birth makes up nearly 51,6% in USSR and 49% in Armenia.
In Yerevan, among each 1000 person the marriage index in 1940 nearly makes up 5,2 and after the war it increases up to 11,4. In Armenia during last 40 years this index falls. It has brought to the increase of divorces. In 1940 it has made up 0,8 and in 1980 it has made up 1,1. Divorce index in Armenia is lower than in the USSR. /Table 4 & Graphic 4/
In the history of Armenia the first great immigration has begun in 1928 when part of Armenia has joined Russia.
During 1828 - 1830 a great immigration has been to East Armenia, it has made up 140 thousand people. After the Soviet power's years in 1921 the immigration has begun again. During 1921 - 1926 19,7 thousand Armenians immigrate to Armenia. Later in 1926 - 1936 people continue to immigrate. At this time 22,6 thousand Armenians have returned to Armenia. In 1946 - 1948 from Greece, Syria, Egypt, Iran, France, USA and from another countries 100 thousand Armenians immigrate to Armenia. Next years immigration has decreased. The last great immigration has been in 1962 - 1973 when 26,1 thousand people immigrate to Armenia. There have been nearly 20 thousand immigrants from Iran.
Only by reason of immigration in 1926 - 1939 and 1950 - 1970 the population of Armenia has increased by 208,8 thousand people. There were many Armenian immigrants in Georgia and Azerbaijan, where lived nearly 70% of Armenian population. During last years immigration was not characteristic for Armenian people, but in 1988 - 1989 from Azerbaijan immigrate 210 thousand Armenians. It has been one of the greatist immigration in our history. /Table 5 & Graphic 5/
Mostly these immigrants settled in several cities in our republic. In case of immigration the mechanical increase of Armenian population in 1950 - 1970 makes up 165 thousand people, 146,5 thousand from which settled in cities. Accoprding to it's mechanical increase - Yerevan is on the 1st place, Abovian - on the 2nd, Kirovakan - on the 3rd, Leninakan - on the 4th, then Hrasdan and Etchmiadzin.
Armenia is one of the densest inhabited republic in the USSR. It is the 2nd republic after Moldavia, where 129 people live per a sq. km, but in Armenia more than 110 people live per a sq. km. 46,7% of population live in its every 10,3% area and 34% are villagers. 1/3 part of population lives in Yerevan. 27,4% of villagers live in Araratian valley. /Table 16 & Graphic 16/
The density of Armenian population nine times exceeds the density of population in the USSR. 12,8 people live per a sq. km in the USSR. It also exceeds Georgia and Azerbaijan. From the date of 1989 78 people live per a sq. km in Georgia and 81 people - in Azerbaijan.
Armenia is the most homogeneous republic with it's national structure. Armenians make up nearly 95% of republic population. After Soviet power establishment the national structure of it becomes more homogeneous. So in 1926 it makes up 84% of population, in 1959-88%, in 1970-88,6%, in 1979-88,9%, in 1989 it makes up nearly 95%.
Besides Armenians in our republic live Azerbaijanians (which emigrate from Armenia), Russians, Kurds, Ukrainians, Greeks and some other minor nations. From the date of 1979 Azerbaijanians are on the 2nd place after Armenians. They make up 160,8 thousand people or 5,3% of population. Azerbaijanians mostly live in villages.
Russians are on the 3rd place. They make up 70,3 thousand people or 2,3%. In other republics of the USSR they make up the great part of population. In the USSR Armenians make up 4151 thousand people, 65,6% from which live in Armenia.
According the data of 1979 475 thousand Armenians or 11,4% live in Azerbaijan. But after the genocide at 1988 - 89 in Sumgait and Baku 210 thousand Armenians have to leave Azerbaijan, thousands of Armenians died during genocide.
In Georgia Armenians make up 10,8% or 448 thousand people, 27 thousand people or 0,7% in Turkmenistan, the other 2,7% inhabit another republics.
Investigating the population of Karabakh and Artsakh we notice that during last 10 years the population growth is in a very low level - only 27 thousand people or 16% of population. In 1979 the most part of population lives in villages. Those hard social - economic conditions forced them to leave their places and emigrate to Rossia, Armenia and another countries.
The same fact we can see in Nakhitchevan,
where people used to live mainly in villages. In 1989 only 89 thousand
from 206 thousand people inhabited the town. Now there are no Armenians
in Nakhitchevan.In 1989 Armenians have left the last village.